Glossary-World History: Medieval and Early Modern Times

Spanish Glossary



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Abd al-Malik (uhb•DUL•muh•LIHK) n. a Muslim ruler who became caliph in A.D. 685 and made Arabic the official language of government in all Muslim lands. (p. 115)

Abd al-Rahman (uhb•DUL•rahk•MAHN ) III n. the eighth emir of al-Andalus, during whose reign al-Andalus reached the height of its power. (p. 132)

Afonso I n. a king of Kongo whose rule began in A.D. 1506. He was influenced by the Portuguese and participated in the slave trade. (p. 197) al-Andalus n. the area of Spain under Muslim control between the A.D. 700s and 1492. (p. 131)

Allah (AL•uh) n. God in the Islamic religion. (p. 88)

alluvial soil n. a very rich and fertile soil deposited by flowing water. (p. 373)

Almoravids (AL•muh•RAHV•ihdz) n. a North African Islamic dynasty that tried to forcibly convert neighboring peoples, including those of Morocco, Spain, and Ghana. (p. 161)

anatomy n. the scientific study of the shapes and structures of humans, plants, and animals. (p. 498)

Angkor Wat (ANG•kawr WAHT) n. a complex of temples in Southeast Asia, built in the A.D. 1100s, that covers nearly one square mile and is the largest religious structure in the world. (p. 279)

anthropology (AN•thruh•PAHL•uh•jee) n. the study of humans and human cultures. (p. 26)

aqueduct (AK•wih•DUHKT) n. a structure designed to bring fresh water into a city or town. (p. 69)

archaeology (AHR•kee•AHL•uh•jee) n. the recovery and study of physical evidence from the past. (p. 25)

artifact n. a human-made object. (p. 25)

Askia Muhammad n. the ruler of the Songhai empire from A.D. 1493 to 1528, who expanded the empire and organized its government. (p. 168)

astrolabe (AS•truh•LAYB) n. an instrument used to measure the angles of stars above the horizon, thus helping sailors determine their latitude. (p. 512)

Augustus (aw•GUHS•tuhs) n. the first emperor of Rome, who ruled from 27 B.C. to A.D. 14 and greatly expanded the size and influence of the Roman Empire. (p. 49)



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Baghdad n. a city, located in what is now Iraq, that was the capital of the Abbasid empire. (p. 120)

Bantu migrations n. a movement, beginning sometime around 1000 B.C., of Bantu-speaking peoples from West Africa to the south and east, spreading their languages and cultures. (p. 182)

bubonic plague n. a disease that struck western Eurasia in the mid-1300s, in an outbreak known as the Black Death. (p. 333)

Buddhism n. a belief system based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, which stress freeing oneself from worldly desires. (p. 214)

bureaucracy (byu•RAHK•ruh•see) n. a system of departments and agencies that carry out the work of a government. (pp. 114, 224)

bushido (BUSH•ih•DOH) n. the code of conduct of samurai warriors, which required that they be generous, brave, and loyal. (p. 308)

Byzantine (BIHZ•uhn•TEEN) Empire n. the Eastern Roman Empire, which was ruled from Constantinople and from the 4th century to the
15th century. (p. 59)


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cacao (kuh•KOW) n. a tropical American tree whose seeds are used to produce chocolate. (p. 370)

caliph (KAY•lihf) n. a ruler of the Muslim community, viewed as a successor of Muhammad. (p. 100)

calligraphy n. the art of fine handwriting. (p. 121)

Calvin, John n. a leader of the Protestant Reformation, who lived from A.D. 1509 to 1564 and emphasized the doctrine of predestination. (p. 472)

capitalism n. an economic system based on private ownership of economic resources and the use of those resources to make a profit. (p. 524)

caravel n. a type of Portuguese sailing ship with both square and lateen sails, developed for long voyages. (p. 512)

cartography n. the skills and methods used in the making of maps. (p. 15)

celadon (SEHL•uh•DAHN) n. a type of Korean pottery, often with a bluish-green color. (p. 276)

Charlemagne (SHAHR•luh•MAYN) n. a king of the Franks (from A.D. 768) who conquered much of Europe and spread Christianity in the conquered regions. (p. 294)

chasqui (CHAHS•kee) n. a runner in the Incan empire who carried messages up and down the length of the empire. (p. 411)

chivalry n. the code of conduct of medieval European knights, focusing on bravery, honor, and respect toward women and the weak.

Christianity n. a religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus. (p. 50)

circumnavigate v. to make a voyage completely around the world. (p. 515)

clan n. a group of people related by blood or marriage. (pp. 86, 151)

clergy n. the people with priestly authority in a religion. (p. 321)

climate n. the pattern of weather conditions in a certain location over a long period of time. (p. 10)

Clovis n. a leader of the Franks, who conquered the Roman province of Gaul in A.D. 486 and later established a large and powerful
Frankish kingdom. (p. 56)

codex n. a book of the type used by early Meso-American civilizations to record important historical events. (p. 385)

Columbian Exchange n. the movement of plants, animals, and other living things between the eastern and western hemispheres after
Columbus’ voyage to the Americas in A.D. 1492. (p. 521)

Confucianism (kuhn•FYOO•shuh•nihz•uhm) n. a belief system based on the teachings of Confucius, a scholar who taught moral virtues and ethics. (p. 214)

Constantine n. the Roman emperor from A.D. 306 to 337, who ended the persecution of Christians and moved the capital of the empire to Byzantium (later known as Constantinople). (p. 54)

continent n. one of the seven large landmasses of Earth—North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica. (p. 9)
convert v. to persuade a person to adopt a new religion or belief. (p. 479)

Córdoba n. the capital of al-Andalus. (p. 131)

Cortés (kawr•TEHZ), Hernán (ehr•NAHN) n. the Spanish explorer who conquered the Aztec civilization of Mexico in A.D. 1521. (p. 400)
covenant n. a binding agreement. (p. 483)

Crusades n. a series of military expeditions from Christian Europe to Palestine between the 11th and 13th centuries A.D. (p. 327)
culture n. a way of life shared by a group of people. (p. 27)


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daimyo (DY•mee•OH) n. a Japanese lord with large landholdings and a private samurai army, who paid no taxes to the government. (p. 267)

Daoism (DOW•IHZ•uhm) n. a belief system that originated in China around 500 B.C., emphasizing harmony with nature and with inner feelings. (p.215)

Declaration of Independence n. a document that declared the American colonies’ independence from Great Britain. (p. 546)

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen n. a document adopted by the French revolutionary government in 1789, outlining the
people’s rights. (p. 548)

dissection n. the cutting open of plants and animals to study and investigate their parts. (p. 498)

divan n. an imperial council that advised the sultan in the Ottoman Empire. (p. 351)


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elevation n. the height of land above sea level. (p. 368)

elite (ih•LEET) n. the superior or wealthiest members of a society or group. (p. 374)

Elizabethan Age n. the period of the rule of Queen Elizabeth I in England, from 1558 to 1603. (p. 448)

embassy n. an office of one country’s government in another country. (p. 253)

emperor n. the ruler of an empire. (p. 49)

empire n. a group of different cultures or territories led by a single all-powerful ruler. (p. 49)

enlightened despot n. a ruler who had absolute power but also paid attention to the political ideas of the Enlightenment and tried to rule in a
just and educated way. (p. 543)

Enlightenment n. an 18th-century philosophical movement in which philosophers used reason to understand truths about human nature. (p. 535)

epic poem n. a long poem that tells a story of heroic adventures. (p. 309)

excavation n. the process of digging up historically significant objects for the purpose of studying them. (p. 26)


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faction n. a small group whose interests run counter to those of a larger group of which they are part. (p. 124)

federalism n. the sharing of power between an organization or government and its members. (p. 484)

feudalism n. the political and social system of the Middle Ages in Europe, in which lords gave land to vassals in exchange for service and loyalty. (p. 296)

Forbidden City n. a group of walled palaces built for the Chinese emperor shortly after A.D. 1400 in the capital city of Beijing. (p. 240)

Francis of Assisi, St. n. an Italian who founded the Franciscan religious order in the early A.D. 1200s. (p. 324)


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Genghis Khan (JEHNG•gihs KAHN) n. a Mongol leader who united the Mongol tribes around A.D. 1206 and began a campaign of conquest, forging
an empire that covered northern China and Central Asia. (p. 233)

geocentric theory n. the theory that Earth is at the center of the universe. (p. 497)

geography n. the study of Earth’s natural features. (p. 9)

Ghana (GAH•nuh) n. a region between the Sahara and the forests of southern West Africa, which was home to many ancient cultures. (p. 159)

glyph (glihf) n. a picture that represents a word, syllable, or sound. (p. 375)

golden age n. a period in which a society or culture is at its peak. (p. 121)

Great Enclosure n. the largest of the three main sections of the Shona settlement of Great Zimbabwe—likely a royal residence. (p. 188)

Great Schism (SKIHZ•uhm) n. a division in the Roman Catholic Church from A.D. 1378 until 1417, which occurred when the Church’s two centers of power, Avignon and Rome, split and elected different popes. (p. 462)

Great Zimbabwe (zihm•BAHB•wee) n. the central settlement of the Shona empire in Africa, enclosed by a large stone wall, covering more than 100 acres, and having a population of 10,000 to 20,000. (p. 188)

Gregory VII, Pope n. the head of the Roman Catholic Church from 1073 to 1085, who struggled with Emperor Henry IV for power. (p. 323)

griot (gree•OH) n. an official storyteller in an African civilization. (p. 153)

guild n. an association of people sharing a trade or craft, intended to control the quality and quantity of their production and to protect
their interests.(p. 302)
Gutenberg, Johann n. a German who, in the mid-1400s, invented a press for printing with movable type. (p. 449)


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habeas corpus n. the right of people not to be imprisoned unlawfully. (p. 344)

haiku n. a Japanese form of poem, containing 17 syllables arranged in three lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables. (p. 260)

harmony n. the combining of elements to form a pleasing whole. (p. 498)

heliocentric (HEE•lee•oh•SEHN•trihk) adj. having the sun as center. (p. 503)

hemisphere n. either of two equal halves of Earth, as marked by the equator or the prime meridian. (p. 17)

Henry IV, Emperor n. an 11th-century ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, who continually struggled for power with Pope Gregory VII. (p. 323)

Hijrah (HIHJ•ruh) n. the move of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to the city of Yathrib in A.D. 622. (p. 93)

historian n. a person who studies and interprets the past. (p. 31)

history n. the study of past events. (p. 31)

humanism n. a movement in Renaissance Europe, celebrating human potential and achievement and stressing the study of subjects such as history, grammar, literature, and philosophy. (p. 432)

Hundred Years’ War n. a series of wars between England and France, from A.D. 1337 to 1453. (p. 335)



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Iberian Peninsula n. the southwestern tip of Europe, where the modern nations of Spain and Portugal are located. (p. 114)

Ignatius of Loyola, St. n. a Spaniard who founded the religious order of Jesuits in the early A.D. 1530s. (p. 474)

imperial adj. relating to an empire or emperor. (p. 223)

indulgence n. a pardon for sin granted by the Roman Catholic Church, allowing a person to avoid punishment by God in the afterlife. (p. 463)

Inquisition n. a court established by the Roman Catholic Church in A.D. 1542 to investigate people who may have strayed from the Roman Catholic faith and to strengthen the power of the Church. (pp. 331, 474)

Islam n. a monotheistic religion based on the teachings of Muhammad. (p. 93)


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janissary n. a member of an elite fighting force of the Ottoman Empire, made up mainly of slaves. (p. 353)

Jesuit n. a member of the Society of Jesus, a religious order founded in the early A.D. 1530s by St. Ignatius of Loyola. (p. 474)

Joan of Arc n. a French peasant girl who led the French to victory over the English at Orléans in A.D. 1429. (p. 335)

John, King n. the king of England who signed the Magna Carta in A.D. 1215. (p. 342)

Justinian n. the ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire from A.D. 527 to 565, who ruled with his wife, Theodora, and reconquered lost territories
for the empire. (p. 59)

Justinian Code n. a legal code, prepared under the direction of the Byzantine emperor Justinian, that regulated much of Byzantine life. (p. 59)


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kabuki (kuh•BOO•kee) n. a form of Japanese drama developed in the A.D. 1600s, featuring melodramatic singing and dancing, heavy makeup, and elaborate costumes. (p. 259)

Khmer Empire n. the most powerful and longestlasting kingdom on the mainland of Southeast Asia,
centered in what is today Cambodia. (p. 278)

Kilwa n. an ancient city-state on the eastern coast Africa, settled by people from Iran and Arabia, that reached its height in the late A.D. 1200s. (p. 182)

kinship n. a connection among people by blood, marriage, or adoption. (p. 151)

knight n. a highly trained mounted warrior in the service of a noble during the European Middle Ages. (p. 300)

Kongo n. an ancient kingdom along the western coast of Africa, settled by the Bantu-speaking Kongo people sometime before the
14th century A.D. (p. 195)

Koryo n. a kingdom on the Korean peninsula, established in A.D. 935 after the collapse of the Silla kingdom. (p. 276)

Kublai Khan (koo•bly KAHN) n. the grandson of Genghis Khan who took power in southern China in A.D. 1260 and defeated the Song army in 1279, giving the Mongols control over all of China. (p. 234)


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labor specialization n. the doing of specific types of work by trained or knowledgeable workers. (p. 152)

landform n. a naturally formed feature of Earth’s land surface, such as an island, a mountain, or a plateau. (p. 10)

latitude n. a measure of distance north or south of the equator. (p. 17)

Leonardo da Vinci n. an Italian Renaissance painter, born in A.D. 1452, who painted many masterpieces, such as the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, and also excelled in scientific research. (p. 438)

longbow n. a weapon that can shoot arrows able to penetrate a knight’s armor. (p. 336)

longitude n. a measure of distance east or west of the prime meridian. (p. 17)

lord n. a powerful landholding noble. (p. 296)

Luther, Martin n. a German theologian, born in A.D. 1483, who was a leader of the Reformation and taught salvation through faith in God rather
than through good deeds. (p. 463)


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Magna Carta n. a list of rights written by England’s nobility and signed by King John in A.D. 1215. (p. 342)

maize (mayz) n. a type of corn grown by Native American civilizations. (p. 370)

Mali n. a West African empire established by the Malinke people. (p. 165)

Manchu n. a member of a northeastern Chinese people who conquered China in A.D. 1644 and began the last dynasty in Chinese history, called
the Qing Dynasty. (p. 242)

manor n. the estate of a feudal noble, usually including a fortified building or castle. (p. 299)

Mansa Musa n. an emperor of Mali who made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca in A.D. 1324. (p. 166)

maritime adj. relating to the sea. (p. 241)

Maya (MAH•yuh) n. a Meso-American civilization, which reached its height between A.D. 250 and 900. (p. 381)

Mbanza (uhm•BAHN•zah) n. the capital city of the ancient African kingdom of Kongo. (p. 196)

mercantilism n. an economic policy based on the idea that a nation’s power depends on its wealth. (p. 525)

mercenary n. a soldier who is paid to fight. (p. 132)

Meso-America n. a region that includes the southern part of Mexico and much of Central America. (p. 367)

Michelangelo n. an Italian Renaissance artist, born in A.D. 1475, who worked mainly as a sculptor but also painted such famous works asthe ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. (p. 438)

Middle Ages n. the period of European history between the collapse of Rome and the Renaissance, lasting roughly from A.D. 500 to
1450. (p. 291)

missionary n. a person who travels to a foreign country in order to do religious work. (p. 479)

monastery n. a place where members of a religious order practice a life of prayer and worship. (p. 295)

Mongol Ascendancy n. the period in which the Mongols controlled all of Central Asia, making overland trade and travel safe. (p. 236)
monotheism n. a belief in one God. (p. 88)

Montezuma II n. the last Aztec emperor, who ruled from A.D. 1502 to 1520 and was overthrown by the Spanish. (p. 400)

mosaic (moh•ZAY•ihk) n. a picture made out of many small colored tiles or pieces of glass. (p. 67)

mosque (mahsk) n. a building for Muslim worship, designed to face the city of Mecca. (p. 95)

mother culture n. a culture that shapes and influences the customs and ideas of later cultures. (p. 377)

movable type n. a small block of metal or wood with a single raised character, used for printing texts. (p. 228)

Murasaki Shikibu (MOO•rah•SAH•kee SHEE•kee•BOO), Lady n. a Japanese writer of the early A.D. 1000s, who wrote The Tale of Genji, considered one of the world’s first novels. (p. 259)

Muslim n. a person who follows the religion of Islam, accepting Allah as the only God. (p. 93)

Mutapa (moo•TAH•pah) n. an ancient kingdom in what is now the country of Zimbabwe, established by a Shona king around A.D. 1440; also, a ruler of
this kingdom. (p. 190)


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Nam Viet n. a Vietnamese kingdom conquered by the Chinese in 111 B.C. (p. 277)

natural rights n. the rights that all people are born with—such as the rights to life, liberty, and property according to the 18th-century
philosopher John Locke. (p. 536)

Noh n. a form of Japanese drama developed in the A.D. 1300s, often featuring retellings of legends and folktales presented by actors in painted
wooden masks. (p. 258)

nomad n. a person who moves from place to place rather than settling permanently. (pp. 86, 213)


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oasis (oh•AY•sihs) n. a fertile area in the midst of a desert. (p. 86)

Olmec (AHL•mehk) n. the earliest known Meso-American culture, which flourished from 1200 to 400 B.C. and was centered in what is now
southeastern Mexico. (p. 373)

Omar Khayyam (OH•mahr ky•YAHM) n. a Persian-born Muslim poet who usually wrote in quatrain form and was also a great mathematician. (p. 122)

oral history n. an unwritten verbal account of events, such as a story that is passed down from generation to generation. (p. 32)

Orthodox adj. relating to the Christian church that developed in the Byzantine Empire and is not under the authority of the pope. (p. 62)

Osman n. the Turkish leader who founded the Ottoman Empire in the early A.D. 1300s. (p. 351)


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Pacal II n. a king who ruled the Mayan city of Palenque for nearly 70 years (from A.D. 615)—one of the greatest Mayan kings. (p. 384)

Pachacuti (PAH•chah•KOO•tee) n. the ninth Inca ruler, who came to power in A.D. 1438 and expanded the Incan Empire. (p. 410)

parliament n. a group of representatives with some powers of government. (p. 343)

patron n. a person who supports an activity or institution by providing financial backing. (p. 437)

Peace of Westphalia (wehst•FAYL•yuh) n. an agreement reached in A.D. 1648, which recognized the permanent division of western Europe into
Catholic and Protestant nations and ended many ongoing religious wars. (p. 483)

perspective n. a technique of painting, developed during the Renaissance, that represents the appearance of objects in
three-dimensional space. (p. 437)

philosophe (FIHL•uh•SAWF) n. one of the 18thcentury thinkers who attempted to apply the scientific method to social problems. (p. 536)

pilgrimage n. a journey to a sacred place or shrine. (p. 89)

Pizarro, Francisco n. a Spanish explorer who arrived in Peru in A.D. 1532 and had conquered the Incan Empire by 1535. (p. 413)

Polo, Marco n. a Venetian trader who traveled the Silk Roads and arrived in China around A.D. 1275. He became an aide to Kublai Khan and later
published a popular book about his adventures. (p. 236)

porcelain n. a hard white ceramic material, often called china. (p. 229)

predestination n. the doctrine that God chooses people for salvation and damnation before they are born and that individuals have no power to
change God’s will. (p. 472)

primary source n. a document or artifact created during a particular historical period. (p. 32)

printing press n. a machine for pressing paper against inked movable type. (p. 449)

projection n. a way of representing Earth’s curved surface on a flat map while keeping distortion consistent and manageable. (p. 16)

Protestant n. a member of a Christian group that broke with the Roman Catholic Church during or after the 16th century. (p. 465)


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quipu (KEE•poo) n. a counting tool of the ancient Incan civilization, made of cords with knots at various points. (p. 414)

Qur’an (kuh•RAN) n. the Muslim holy book, consisting of revelations from Allah that were collected by Muhammad’s followers after his death. (p. 94)


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rationalism n. the idea that people should use reason, or logical thought, to understand the world. (p. 497)

Reconquista n. the series of campaigns, ending in A.D. 1492, by which Christian armies drove Muslim rulers out of Spain. (p. 330)

Reformation n. a movement of opposition to the Roman Catholic Church, beginning in the 16th century. (p. 465)

regent (REE•juhnt) n. a person who rules in place of an absent or underage monarch. (p. 253)

religious order n. a group of people who live according to a religious rule. (p. 324)

Renaissance (REHN•ih•SAHNS) n. a period of rebirth and creativity in art, writing, and thought from about A.D. 1300 to 1600, beginning in Italyand eventually spreading throughout Europe. (p. 435)

republic n. a form of government in which power rests with the citizens, who vote in order to elect leaders. (p. 48)

reunify v. to bring together again. (p. 216)

Roman Catholic adj. relating to the Christian church of the West that is under the authority of the pope. (p. 62)


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Sahara n. a large desert of northern Africa, stretching from the Atlantic coast to the Nile Valley. (p. 157)

Saladin (SAL•uh•din) n. a military leader who united Muslims to fight the Christians in Palestine during the 12th century A.D. (p. 329)

salon n. a gathering of thinkers and artists to discuss issues and exchange ideas during the Enlightenment. (p. 538)

samurai (SAM•uh•RY) n. a trained warrior of the Japanese aristocracy. (p. 267)

savannah n. (suh•VAN•uh) a flat grassland, with few trees, in a tropical region. (p. 157)

schism (SKIHZ•uhm) n. an official split between two groups. (p. 62)

scholar-official n. an educated person with a government position. (p. 224)

scientific method n. an approach to scientific investigation that involves making careful observations, forming and testing a hypothesis,and drawing a conclusion that confirms or modifies the hypothesis. (p. 506)

Scientific Revolution n. a period, beginning in the A.D. 1500s, during which European scholars began to question classical scientific ideas and
Christian beliefs. (p. 503)

secondary source n. a work produced about a historical event by someone who was not actually there. (p. 33)

Seljuk Turk n. a member of a Turkish people that controlled central and western Asia from the 11th to the 13th century. (p. 327)

serf n. a peasant farmer in feudal society, who labored for a noble in exchange for protection and certain rights. (p. 297)

Shakespeare, William n. most famous English writer of the Renaissance, best known for his plays Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet. (p. 447)

Shi`a (SHEE•uh) n. a Muslim group that resisted the Umayyads’ rule, believing that the caliph should be a relative of the prophet Muhammad. (p. 103)

Shinto n. the traditional religion of Japan, based on worship of and respect for nature and ancestors. (p. 252)

shogun n. a Japanese military leader—one of a group that first came to power in A.D. 1192 and ruled on the emperor’s behalf but usually in their own interests. (p. 268)

Shona n. a Bantu-speaking culture that was thriving in what is now the countries of Botswana, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe by A.D. 1000. (p. 187)

Shotoku (SHOH•toh•KOO), Prince n. a regent who ruled Japan from A.D. 593 to 622 and brought elements of Chinese culture—inparticular, the Buddhist religion—to the country. (p. 253)

Silk Roads n. the ancient trade routes that connected Europe with China. (p. 430)

slash-and-burn agriculture n. a type of farming in which patches of land are prepared for planting by cutting down and burning the
natural vegetation. (p. 370)

Songhai n. a West African people whose leaders created a great empire in the 15th and 16th centuries A.D. (p. 166)

sponsor n. a person who gives money in support of a person or project. (p. 511)

standing army n. a fighting force that is maintained in times of peace as well as times of war. (p. 119)

stele (STEE•lee) n. an ancient carved stone marker commemorating an important date or great event. (p. 384)

Stoicism (STOH•ih•SIHZ•uhm) n. a Greek philosophy that stressed the importance of virtue, duty, and endurance and was especially influential
in ancient Rome. (p. 68)

Suleyman I n. the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from A.D. 1520 to 1566, who encouraged the arts and organized a legal code. (p. 352)

Sundiata (sun•JAH•tah) n. an ancient ruler of the Malinke people, who captured the capital of Ghana and greatly expanded the empire. (p. 165)

Sunnah n. Muhammad’s words and deeds, which serve Muslims as a guide for proper living. (p. 94)

Sunni n. a member of the Muslim group that accepted the rule of the elected caliphs and did not resist the Umayyads. (p. 103)

Swahili (swah•HEE•lee) n. an African language that blends Bantu and Arabic elements. (p. 183)


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Tenochtitlan(teh•NOHCH•tee•TLAHN) n. an ancient Aztec city, founded in A.D. 1325 on a small island in Lake Texcoco. (p. 397)

Thomas Aquinas (uh•KWY•nuhs) n. an Italian scholar who made a synthesis of classical philosophy and Christian theology. (p. 325)

Timbuktu n. a city of central Mali in West Africa, which was founded in the 13th century and was a center of trade and culture. (p. 165)

Tokugawa Shogunate (TOH•koo•GAH•wah SHOH•guh•niht) n. the rule of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his successors in Japan, which began in A.D. 1603 and brought a 250-year period of stability to the country. (p. 270)

triangular trade n. the exchange of goods and slaves across the Atlantic Ocean between the Americas, Europe, and Africa. (p. 522)

tribute n. a payment made by one country to another as a sign of respect. (p. 241)

Treaty of Tordesillas (TAWR•day•SEEL•yahs) n. an agreement between Spain and Portugal in1494, establishing an imaginary line from north to south around the world and allowing Spain to claim lands west of the line and Portugal to claim lands to the east of it. (p. 514)


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universal gravitation n. Isaac Newton’s theory that gravity acts on all objects throughout the universe. (p. 504)


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vassal n. in feudal society, a person who received land and protection from a lord in return for loyalty. (p. 268)

vegetation zone n. a region that, because of its soil and climate, has distinctive types of plants. (p. 157)

vernacular n. a person’s native language. (p. 449)


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weather n. the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time. (p. 10)

wood-block printing n. a printing system developed by the ancient Chinese, in which wood blocks were carved with enough characters to
print entire pages. (p. 228)


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Yucatan (YOO•kuh•TAN) Peninsula n. an area of southeastern Mexico that extends into the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. (p. 367)


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Zen n. aJapanese form of Buddhism, focusing on self-discipline, simplicity, and meditation. (p. 258)

Zheng He (juhng huh) n. a Chinese admiral whose extensive voyages between A.D. 1405 and 1433 greatly expanded China’s foreign trade and
reputation. (p. 241)